You're part of a lawsuit that's been filed in a Wisconsin small claims court, now you may be wondering: What do I need to win? You know that any papers or documents you have will help, like canceled checks, bills, receipts and leases. These are important, of course, but don't forget people. Witnesses can mean the difference between winning and losing the case.
Whether you're the one who filed the suit (the "plaintiff") or the person being sued (the "defendant"), you're allowed to bring witnesses with you help support your version of the case. Basically, witnesses are people who saw or heard something about the case. Or, they're "experts" who help explain something technical about a claim involved in the case.
Your witnesses need to have something meaningful to offer to the case. Otherwise, you run the risk of aggravating the commissioner (or the judge, if one's been assigned to your case) for wasting her time and the court's time. So, be certain that your witnesses have personal knowledge about your case - they saw or heard something, like saw the car accident you're suing over. Or, if you need an expert, make sure he's qualified to talk about the case. For example, a mechanic is qualified to talk about faulty car repairs involved in a suit, but your friend who's a car salesmen probably isn't a good choice for such testimony.
Also, make sure you talk to your witnesses before you show up at the courthouse for the trial. You want to make sure that your witnesses will support your version of the story and that they remember important facts in the same way as you do. If a potential witness doesn't help your case, don't use her.
For example, a witness may have seen the collision between your car and defendant's car, but he may not be able to say how fast either of you were driving or if you stopped completely at a stop sign before the accident. You may not want this witness to testify.
A subpoena is a court order commanding someone to appear at court at a certain date and time and give testimony about something. Sometimes, the subpoena requires the person to bring documents with him to the courthouse when the documents are important for the case. Bills, receipts, and leases are good examples of documents that may be subpoenaed.
If you need a witness to come to court but the witness won't come, you can ask the circuit court clerk to subpoena the witness, requiring her to come to trial and testify. To subpoena a witness, you'll have to fill out a subpoena form, which you can get from the clerk, and arrange for it to be delivered to (or "served on") to the witness. The clerk can give you details about this, but generally you have to pay a fee for the subpoena to served by a "process server" or the sheriff of the county in which the witness lives.
You have to pay a fee for subpoenaing a witness. The court clerk can tell you the amount of the fee, as well as help you with the process of having the subpoena issued. You also have to pay, in advance, a "witness fee" to anyone you subpoena. The fee is $16 per day, plus $.20 per mile that he has to travel to and from the courthouse. These fees may change at anytime, so be sure to ask the clerk about the current witness fee.
If you don't subpoena a witness and she doesn't show up for trial, you may have to go ahead with the trial without the witness. A commissioner may or may not grant you a continuance, that is, postpone the trial so that you can get the witness to show up. You'll have to explain why the witness is so important to your case, though.
If you find out before trial that a witness can't make the trial date, such as because of an emergency or illness, you may ask the commissioner for a continuance. The other party has to agree to the postponement, however.
If you get a subpoena, you should contact the person who sent it to you or his attorney for additional information about it. The subpoena itself should include the necessary contact information. Don't ignore a subpoena! Anyone who doesn't obey a subpoena can be held in "contempt of court." This means you've violated a court's order; you could be fined by the court or even put in jail for a few days.
An expert witness has education, training, skills or experience that makes her more knowledgeable about a particular subject than the average person. Expert witnesses are used to explain technical or complicated matters so that ordinary people or "laypersons" can understand them better. For example, if you're suing over faulty car repairs, the commissioner or jury in your case may not understand car engines very well, so you may want a mechanic to explain why your car repairs are faulty.
Examples of possible expert witnesses are:
- Automobile mechanics and body workers
- Construction professionals, like carpenters, roofers and general contractors
- Doctors, such as your family physician or chiropractor
- Computer or information technology (IT) professionals
In most cases you'll have to pay an expert for her testimony. And, you can't use a subpoena to force an expert witness to testify.
Testifying without Being There
Live, in-court witness testimony is always best. That way, the commissioner and other party can a witness questions, and everyone can gauge how truthful and reliable he is. However, the commissioner may or may not let you use a written statement given by a witness. The commissioner will consider whether the statement is trustworthy, reliable and relevant to your case. If so, the commissioner may allow it. It will help if the statement is in the form of an affidavit. This simply means that the statement was made under oath.
The commissioner also may or may not let a witness testify by telephone, such as when a witness lives out-of-state. Reliability, trustworthiness and the importance of the testimony will guide the commissioner's decision on the matter.
Before trial, you should ask the court clerk about how the commissioners in your particular small claims court usually handle requests to let witnesses testify without being present at trial.
In most cases, the plaintiff will give her evidence first, including testimony from her witnesses. The defendant will go second. During the trial, the commissioner usually asks the witnesses questions, and each party can question the other's witnesses.
It's important that you don't interrupt the witnesses, even if you think the witness is wrong or even lying. Make notes about the discrepancies. Later, you can either ask the witness about the discrepancy or use your own witnesses to set the matter straight.
You may interrupt a witness, however, when you have a valid objection to what he's saying. An "objection" means that the witness is testifying about something that he shouldn't be. Good examples are when a witness:
- Doesn't have direct, personal knowledge about what he's testifying about. For example, a passenger in car who didn't actually see the collision is asked to testify about how fast the defendant's car was moving
- Relies on hearsay, which is when the witness testifies about something he heard someone say and that person isn't a witness at trial. For example, when a witness is asked to testify about what a passerby said just after a car accident
Questions for Your Attorney
- I was sued in small claims and at trial, one of my witnesses changed his story and the plaintiff won. Is there anything I can do?
- I was subpoenaed to testify as a witness in a small claims suit involving a slip and fall personal injury claim. I'll have to take an unpaid day off work to be at trial. Do I really have to go? Can I make the person who sent the subpoena pay my lost wages for the day?
- Should I bring "character" witnesses to trial to testify about my good nature and how I take care of my personal responsibilities?