Someone owes you money and you decided to file a small claims lawsuit. When you filed the Affidavit and Summons, the court clerk gave you a trial date. The defendant never offered to pay you, or "settle" the case. You tried mediation, where a neutral third party tried to get you both to agree to a compromise, but that didn't work.
Now it's time for the trial. Soon, the Utah small claims court will decide if you win or lose. It's the day you've been waiting for. So, before you go the courthouse, it's a good idea for you know how the trial process works and what you need to do to help make sure you're on the winning side.
Both you and the defendant have to show up or "appear" for trial on the date and at the time scheduled by the clerk of the district or justice court when you filed the lawsuit. Be on time and be ready. Get to the courthouse at least one hour before the scheduled time, just in case the court is moving ahead of schedule or there's a problem with your paperwork.
Bring everything you've gathered to prove your case, like receipts and photographs. And, make sure your witnesses know where the court is, when they need to be there, and what testimony they'll give (what they need to say). If possible, offer them a ride to the courthouse with you.
The trial will be heard by a judge; there's no jury. You, the defendant, and all of the witnesses will be sworn in. The trial process itself is simple and straight-forward:
- The judge will ask you first to explain your case. At this time, you'll also present your evidence (documents and photographs, etc.), and your witnesses should testify, too. The defendant can ask you and your witnesses questions, and the judge may ask questions as well
- The defendant is then asked to explain why he shouldn't have to pay you. She will present her evidence and witnesses at this time. And, you can ask her and her witnesses questions
- The judge may ask you, the defendant, or any witnesses more questions if she needs to clarify or understand something about the case
- The judge will make a judgment. She can do this either immediately after everyone has testified, or she can take the case "under advisement," which means she needs more time to think about it. If that happens, the judge will make a decision within 60 days and you'll be notified by mail
The evidence you should bring to trial to support your claims or defenses includes:
- Documents such as contracts, notes, leases, receipts, work orders, bids and estimates, police reports and the like
- The damaged goods you're suing over, or photographs of the goods
- Photographs or illustrations that explain what happened, such as where a car accident happened
- Any letters, emails, or other correspondence between you and the other party
As plaintiff, you have the burden of proof. That means you have to convince the judge that the defendant owes you money.
You should follow these general suggestions for courtroom conduct:
- Be on time for your trial, and dress as nicely as you can. This shows the judge that you're taking the trial seriously
- Stick to the issues in dispute when presenting your case
- Be polite at all times and don't interrupt the judge, the other party, or any witnesses. Also, don't speak directly to the other party unless the judge gives you permission to do so
Failure to Appear
If you fail to appear at trial, the judge will dismiss your claim. If neither you nor defendant show up, the case will be dismissed. If the defendant doesn't appear, you win automatically. The judge will enter a judgment (called a "default judgment") awarding you the amount of your claim, plus your court costs or filing fees. In the case of a default, you still need to show the judge that your claim against the defendant is valid.
Questions for Your Attorney
- Do I have to appear at trial even if I hire you to represent me in the small claims suit?
- I was in a car accident on my way to trial and I didn't make it in time. The judge dismissed my case. What can I do?
- A witness I need for my trial won't answer my phone calls or letters. Is there anyway I can make her show up at trial?
Related Resources on Lawyers.comsm
- Start the process with our Utah Small Claims Worksheet
- Next in the Small Claims series: Witnesses at a Small Claims Trials in Utah
- Success In Small Claims Court
- Small Claims Court Terms
- Defending a Small Claims Court Case
- Visit our Small Claims Court Forum for more help