The purpose of small claims court is to hear disputes involving relatively small amounts of money—for example, if you want to get your landlord to return your security deposit, or an auto repair shop to give you a refund for shoddy work. Court procedures are simple, inexpensive, quick, and informal. Most people who appear in small claims court present their own case and don't have a lawyer.
Small claims court rules, including maximum amounts for which you can sue, vary by state. This article provides an overview of small claims cases in Texas, from the perspective of the person filing the court case (the plaintiff). In Texas, small claims cases are heard in Justice Court (referred to as small claims court in this article).
Who Can Sue in Small Claims Court in Texas
If you are at least 18 years old (or an emancipated minor), you can file a claim in small claims court. Associations, partnerships, and corporations are also allowed to bring actions in small claims court, unless they are a collection agency, bank, or other institution in the business of lending money for interest. These institutions can’t bring actions in small claims court although they can be sued there.
Dollar Limit on Texas Small Claims Cases
To bring your case in small claims court in Texas, you must be seeking to recover $10,000 or less (not including court costs). If you want to sue for more than $10,000, you have go to a different court, which may not be worth it given the complicated rules and costs of hiring an attorney.
Suing for Something Other Than Money
With a few exceptions, small claims court can only award money, up to the $10,000 limit. If you need an order to make someone do (or stop doing) something, other courts are available. For example, if you want to file for divorce or seek higher child support, you will need to go to a family law court.
Deadline for Filing a Small Claims Case in Texas
Under Texas state law, there are limits (called statute of limitations) on the amount of time you have to bring a lawsuit. The statute of limitations for most cases in Texas is either two or four years, depending on the type of case. You can consult an attorney if you’ve missed the deadline and still want to pursue legal action, although there are very limited situations when you might be able to do so.
Filing a Small Claims Suit in Texas
The first step in filing a small claims case is to obtain and fill out the necessary forms and pay the required fees. You’ll need some basic information to complete the paperwork, like the name and address of the person or business you’re suing (the defendant) and some details about your claim including the date the claim arose and the amount you intend to ask for in damages. Check with the small claims court where you are filing your action to make sure you have all the information you need and fees required to start your lawsuit.
Most small claims actions are filed in the small claims court (called the Justice Court) in the county and state where the person being sued lives, or where the business is located if the defendant is a business. Rules about where you can bring your lawsuit vary depending on the situation and you may have other choices, such as filing where the incident giving rise to the claim occurred.
Small Claims Trials
After the complaint has been filed and the defendant served, both sides need to prepare their cases for court. Careful preparation is key to success. This involves:
writing a compelling statement
gathering documents and evidence, such as contracts, credit card statements, and photographs
selecting reliable witnesses (people who saw what happened or experts on the subject matter of the claim involved), who will come to court to tell what they have seen or heard
deciding on the order in which you will present your evidence, and
preparing what you will say in court.
The Court Judgment
The decision in a small claims court case (the judgment) will usually be mailed to the parties anywhere from a few days to a few weeks after the case is heard. There are exceptions however, typically if one side doesn’t show up and the other wins by default (default judgments are often announced right in the courtroom).
If you win, and the judgment is in your favor, the judge will order the other party to pay a specified amount of money. If things go smoothly, you’ll get your money and that’s it. But sometimes, the person (or business) that lost the case may not have the money to pay the judgment, or may simply refuse to pay it. In that situation, you may need to take legal action (and spend money) to enforce the judgment. The court won't collect the judgment for you.
Filing an Appeal
Texas law allows either party to file an appeal within 21 days. Check with the small claims court where you filed your action for details on the appeal process.
Working With a Lawyer in Texas Small Claims Court
An attorney can represent you in small claims court in Texas (check court rules for limits). Even if you decide to represent yourself, you may want to seek a lawyer’s advice about your case—for example, if you are suing your landlord for the return of your security deposit, you may want to consult an experienced tenants’ attorney to make sure you have a strong case. Or if your dispute involves another business, you may want advice from a business lawyer. Check out Nolo’s Lawyer Directory, to find a Texas attorney who specializes in your type of legal issue.
More Information on Small Claims Court
See the Texas Judicial Branch website to find out more about where to bring your small claims action, as well as details on other courts in the state.
For advice on filing a small claims lawsuit in Texas, preparing and presenting your case in court, collecting a court judgment (if you win), and other useful information, see How to Sue in Justice Court, a publication of the Texas Young Lawyers Association and the State Bar of Texas.
For detailed information on every phase of small claims court, from preparing a winning case to collecting money if you win, see Everybody’s Guide to Small Claims Court, by Ralph Warner (Nolo).
Questions for Your Attorney
Can an attorney assist me with filling out my small claims court forms?
What should I take with me to court?
What should I do if I can't make it to court on my scheduled trial date?