You're involved in a lawsuit that's been filed in the Oklahoma small claims court, and the trial date is coming up. What can you do to help make sure that the judge agrees with your version of the facts and decides that you should win the case? Witnesses can mean the difference between winning and losing.
Whether you're the one who filed the suit (the "plaintiff") or the person being sued (the "defendant"), you're allowed to bring witnesses with you help support your claim. Basically, witnesses are people who saw or heard something about the case. Or, they're "experts" who help explain something technical about a claim involved in the case.
Your witnesses need to have something meaningful to offer to the case. Otherwise, you run the risk of aggravating the judge for wasting her time and the court's time. So, be certain that your witnesses have personal knowledge about your case - they saw or heard something, like saw the car accident you're suing over. Or, if you need an expert, make sure he's qualified to talk about the case. For example, a mechanic is qualified to talk about faulty car repairs involved in a suit, but your friend who's a car salesmen probably isn't a good choice for such testimony.
Also, make sure you talk to your witnesses before you show up for trial. You want to make sure that your witnesses will support your version of the story. And, you want to make sure that the witness remembers important facts in the same way as you do. If a potential witness doesn't help your case, don't use her.
For example, a witness may have seen the collision between your car and defendant's car, but may not be able to say how fast either of you were driving or if you stopped completely at a stop sign before the accident. You may not want this witness to testify.
A subpoena is a court order commanding someone to appear at court at a certain date and time and give testimony about something. Sometimes, the subpoena requires the person to bring documents with him to the courthouse when the documents are important for the case. Bills, receipts and leases are good examples of documents that may be subpoenaed.
If you need a witness to come to court but the witness refuses to do so, you can ask the district court clerk to subpoena the witness, requiring her to come to trial and testify. To subpoena a witness, you'll have to fill out a subpoena form and arrange for it to be delivered (or "served") to the witness. This can be done by a sheriff or a process server, and they'll charge a fee for serving it. You may also serve it by mailing it to the witness by certified mail, return receipt requested.
You have to pay the clerk a filing fee for the subpoena, and you also have to pay the witness a fee for appearing in court. That fee is based on the mileage the witness has to travel to and from court. The court clerk can tell you the amount of these fees, as well as help you with the process of having the subpoena issued.
If you didn't subpoena a witness and she doesn't show up for trial, you may have to go ahead with the trial without the witness. A judge might grant you a continuance, that is, postpone the trial so that you can get the witness to show up, but that doesn't happen very often.
If you find out before trial that a witness can't make the trial date, such as because of an emergency or illness, you may ask the judge for a continuance. The other party has to agree to the postponement, however.
If you get a subpoena, you should contact the person who sent it to you or his attorney for additional information about it. The subpoena itself should include the necessary contact information. Don't ignore a subpoena! Anyone who doesn't obey a subpoena can be held in "contempt of court." This means you've disobeyed a court order and you could be fined or even put in jail for a few days.
An expert witness is someone whose education, training, skills or experience makes her more knowledgeable about a particular subject than the average person. Expert witnesses are used to explain technical or complicated matters so that the judge (or the jury, if one was requested in your case) can understand them better.
Examples of possible expert witnesses are:
- Automobile mechanics and body workers
- Construction professionals, like carpenters, roofers, and general contractors
- Doctors, such as your family physician or chiropractor
- Computer or information technology (IT) professionals
In most cases you'll have to pay an expert for her testimony. And, you can't use a subpoena to force an expert witness to testify.
Testifying without Being There
In Oklahoma, your witnesses must be in court. The judge will allow or hear only actual, live testimony about what a witness heard or saw. A written statement, even if it's made under oath, is inadmissible, meaning the judge won't look at it. Nor will the judge allow a witness to testify by telephone.
This "live-witness" rule creates problems if your witness lives far from the courthouse or out of state. It's even more troublesome when an expert witness is involved. In many states, an expert will look at a case and prepare a written report, which can be used at trial without having the expert there. The expert, of course, usually charges a fee for the report. In Oklahoma, the expert's fee could be significantly higher since he has to show up at trial to testify.
In most cases, the plaintiff will give her evidence fist, including testimony from her witnesses. The defendant will go second. During the trial, the judge usually asks the witnesses questions, and each party can question the other's witnesses.
It's important that you don't interrupt the witnesses, even if you think the witness is wrong or even lying. Make notes about the discrepancies. Later, you can either ask the witness about the discrepancy or use your own witnesses to set the matter straight.
You may interrupt a witness, however, when you have a valid objection to what he's saying. An "objection" means that the witness is testifying about something that he shouldn't be. Good examples are when a witness:
- Doesn't have direct, personal knowledge about what he's testifying about. For example, a passenger in car who didn't actually see the collision is asked to testify about how fast the defendant's car was moving
- Relies on hearsay, which is when the witness testifies about something he heard someone say and that person isn't a witness at trial. For example, when a witness is asked to testify about what a passerby said just after a car accident
Questions for Your Attorney
- I was sued in small claims and at trial, one of my witnesses changed his story and the plaintiff won. Is there anything I can do?
- I was subpoenaed to testify as a witness in a small claims suit involving a slip and fall personal injury claim. I'll have to take an unpaid day off work to be at trial. Do I really have to go? Can I make the person who sent the subpoena pay my lost wages for the day?
- Should I bring "character" witnesses to trial to testify about my good nature and how I take care of my personal responsibilities?